Treasury notes are securities that are issued by governments in order to raise funds to finance deficits. It has a maturity that ranges from 2 to 10 years. Hence it is a security that is traded in the capital market. the capital market is the market in which securities that has a maturity of more than 2 years are traded. treasury bonds is also a security that is traded in the capital market.
The treasury notes are issued at a discount and at maturity the face value is paid to the holder of the notes. The holder of the notes is also entitles to a coupon which is like an an interest paid on a certificate of deposit. This coupon is paid according to a coupon rate which is merely the percentage of the face value of the note that would be paid as the coupon.
The 10 year note is often used to have an indication of future inflationary expectation. It is often used in the bond spread which is the difference in yield between the 10 year note and the three month treasury bill. The three month maturity date is considered to be so close in the future that the inflation in three month will be close to the actual inflation. The 10 year maturity date however is sufficiently far in the future that the inflation at that time cannot be known. However investors will want to ensure that the yield on the ten year note is adjusted for inflation. Hence the difference between two will be the expected inflation in ten years. The difference in the two yield cannot include a risk premium like the corporate or municipal bond yield because government treasuries are considered to be the safest of securities.